We had, in containment, a grand strategy for fighting the cold war worked out within the first five. Institute in spring 2001 and one of the foremost european experts on nato and. Bakers phrasing of the second, more attractive option meant that natos jurisdiction would not even extend to east germany, since natos present position in february 1990 remained exactly where it had been throughout the cold war. Nato enlargement has helped increase stability and prosperity in europe. Nevertheless, this statement is the exception to gorbachevs arguments since 1990 thatas gorbachev described in 2008soviet leaders were promised that after germanys unification, nato wouldnt spread eastward. Nato expansion versus consolidation of the eu intra and interclass dynamics in the context of the next cold war. There is no mention of nato enlargement in the september october 1990 agreements on. There were twelve signatories, including the united states, canada and britain full list below. This paper examines germanys interest and role in the eus eastern enlargement. Natos open door policy is based on article 10 of the alliances founding. Many political analysts were unsure of the benefits that enlargement would bring. Montenegro and the folly of nato expansion by brad stapleton on wednesday, the north atlantic treaty organization nato formally invited montenegro to join. According to the german record of the conversation, which was only recently declassified, genscher said. Until quite recently our aim was to oust the americans from europe at any price.
Nato was created by the north atlantic treaty, also called the washington treaty, which was signed on april 5th 1949. We had a grand strategy for fighting world war ii already in place at the time of pearl harbor go after germany first and with adjustments we stuck to it throughout that conflict. The russian newspaper komsomolskaya pravda asked me to write an article on what was said regarding nato expansion during the negotiations concerning german unification in 1990. North atlantic treaty organization nato, military alliance established by the north atlantic treaty also called the washington treaty of april 4, 1949, which sought to create a counterweight to soviet armies stationed in central and eastern europe after world war ii. Nato now held the legal right to deploy an unlimited quantity of troops and military. In fact, the diary further indicates that at least in shevardnadzes view those assurances amounted to a deal which gorbachev accepted, even while he. Gorbachevs consent to unified germanys membership in nato.
Eu enlargement coincided with the military goals of nato after 1990. After discussing the security, economic, and moral sources of germanys interest in enlargement, the paper examines the evolution of german policy on enlargement since 1990. Russian experiences since the collapse of the soviet union. It is true that in the 1990 agreement for german reunification, the allies pledged not to base nato troops in the former. Unlike the existing nato members and former warsaw pact states, the 1990 conventional forces in europe cfe treaty, which was designed to prevent any country from amassing the weaponry required to launch an offensive war, didnt bind the baltic nations. Put bluntly, the conventional theoretical approaches do not help us adequately understand and predict the implications of natos enlargement. Nato in the 21st century 10 final march 19, 2001 second, the experience in bosni a and elsewhere has demonstrated that, even if desirable, expanding nato s purpose to encompass many new. By the early 1990s, the warsaw pact had been dissolved at the insistence of the newly liberated countries of eastern europe, and the soviet union had collapsed. In the decades since nato was created, the article 5. Some were concerned about the possible impact on alliance cohesion and solidarity, as well as on relations with other states, notably russia. The reunification of germany in october 1990 brought the territory of the former east germany into the alliance. In the negotiations on german unification in 1990, so the argument runs, american negotiators had given binding assurances that nato would not expand one inch to. A revitalized nato was an important tool for the maintenance of american engagement and leadership, and its expansion to the new democraciesespecially given the delays in their efforts to join. Nato expansion act of 1994 as of apr 14, 1994 introduced version.
Russian policymakers have claimed for more than two decades that, during the 1990 negotiations on german reunification, the united states promised the soviet union that nato would not expand into eastern europe. Seeking russias destruction since 1949 by gary leupp. The process of joining the alliance is governed by article 10 of the north atlantic treaty, which allows only for the invitation of other european. France, iceland, italy, luxembourg, the netherlands, norway, portugal, the united. The new democracies of central and eastern europe were eager to guarantee their freedom by becoming integrated into euroatlantic institutions. The adoption of rigid outandout rejection of nato expansion has left the republic in an ambiguous, and at times, hostile relationship with brussels. Secretary of state james bakers famous not one inch eastward assurance about nato expansion in his meeting with soviet leader mikhail gorbachev on february 9, 1990, was part of a cascade of assurances about soviet security given by western leaders to gorbachev and other soviet officials throughout the process of german unification in 1990. The nato enlargement question in the triangular bonnwashingtonmoscow diplomacy of 1990 1991, journal of cold war studies, 14. Nato transformation, expansion, engagement w former soviet, w. Natos purpose after the cold war brookings institution. But new evidence shows that the united states never actually made such a pledge. Montenegro and the folly of nato expansion the national. What the west really told moscow about nato expansion, foreign affairs septemberoctober 2014.
Its original members were belgium, canada, denmark, france, iceland, italy. Moscow has long argued that in expanding nato eastward, washington broke the promise it made to soviet leaders shortly after the berlin wall fell. Rather than engage in policy advocacy, my purpose is to analyze the debate on nato expansion and examine the likely. Bush through his secretary of state james baker promised. A revitalized nato was an important tool for the maintenance of american engagement and leadership, and its expansion to the new democraciesespecially given the delays in. Article five of the treaty states that if an armed attack occurs against one of the member states, it shall be considered an attack against all members, and other members shall. It argues that german views on enlargement have evolved from an initial vague enthusiasm for rapid enlargement with lengthy transition periods. Nato air war in the balkans that destroyed the sovereign and multinational country of yugoslavia. In 1949 the united states and 11 other western nations formed the north atlantic treaty organization nato amid the prospect of further communist expansion. Eduard shevardnadze was to acknowledge in february 1990. With the collapse of the soviet union in 1991, nato seemed to have lost a main reason for existing.
The debate on nato expansion eunika katarzyna frydrych the nature of nato enlargement. Enlargement of the north atlantic treaty organization nato is the process of including new member states in nato. The enlargement of the north atlantic treaty organization nato to include more than a dozen new members since 1991 remains a major irritant in russias relations with the west. And when the issue arose later, in the early 1990s, russia at first did not object. The 28 members of the north atlantic treaty organization, or natothe 63yearold military alliance created to prevent the soviet union from expanding its control from eastern europe into western europeface a daunting agenda of immediate and longterm.
The expansion of nato the north atlantic treaty organization nato was founded in 1949 as a means of collective security for the west to defend against the soviet union and eastern bloc. Nato in the 21st century 10 final march 19, 2001 second, the experience in bosni a and elsewhere has demonstrated that, even if desirable, expanding natos purpose to encompass many new. Nato enlargement was the subject of lively debate in the early 1990s. There is no mention of nato enlargement in the septemberoctober 1990 agreements on. It was established at the signing of the north atlantic treaty on 4 april 1949. Pact states, incl russia decline in % of gdp devoted to defense in all nato countries incl. Nato is a military alliance of twentyeight european and two north american countries that constitutes a system of collective defense.
This is not a simple question since much was said by many political leaders and most were proposals or ideas for negotiation, not promises. Enlargement of the north atlantic treaty organization nato is the process of including new. More important, poland in the 1990s was riven by scandals and domestic. The topic of nato expansion was not discussed at all. Poland, hungary and the czech republic joined nato in april 1999.
The united states accounted for more than 70 percent of this, up from about half during the cold. Us except greece, turkey expansion along baltic exddr 1990. Minsks relations with the west have waned and show no particular signs of improvement. The imperialists still lie about the reasons for the war on yugoslavia, claiming it was to defend kosovo, a majoritymuslim area. Nato expansion at heart of ukraine crisis since the soviet collapse as moscow had feared that alliance has spread eastward, expanding along a line from estonia in the north to romania and bulgaria in the south. The reunification of germany in october 1990 brought the territory of the former. The head of natos military operations is the supreme allied commander europe, a position always held by an american so their troops dont come under foreign command, answering. Natos broken promises in europe justify russian concerns. In 1997, nato invited the three eastcentral european states in which democratization and market. Since immediate nato membership was closed, a first step would be for the baltics to demonstrate their value added as members. Originally intended as a collective defense organization of western european.
Alliance theory this essay addresses the general rationale for creating and enlarging alliances. The reunification of germany in october 1990 brought the territory of the former east. Prague 2002 and beyond dmitry gorenburg melissa henton debra roepke daniel whiteneck with contributions by lcdr jim dick and susan mcarver. Nato north atlantic treaty organization is an international alliance that consists of 30 member states from north america and europe.
Nato is continuing to shape global politics 65 years after the alliance was formed on april 4, 1949 in washingon, dc. At the very least the west made a implied commitment not to expand nato east. In 1994 nato established the partnership for p eace pfp, a program in which nonmember states might train with nato forces, participate in peacekeeping or other allied activities, and seek avenues to draw closer to the alliance. Germany and eu enlargement into eastern europe archive.
Hence, nato overlooked its expansion towards the east during the lisbon summit in 2010 in order to attract russias participation in afghanistan crisis and although there was a great deal of discussion on the membership of ukraine and georgia in nato in the 2008 summit in bucharest, these issues were not mentioned in the lisbon summit and the. Nato turns 65, continues eastward expansion youtube. Specifically, they drew lessons from interventions in. Analyzing nato expansion berkeley apec study center.
The north atlantic treaty organization nato council on. This diary entry is evidence, from a critical perspective, that the united states and west germany did give moscow concrete assurances about keeping nato to its current size and scope. Resentment is running particularly high when it comes to the issue of nato enlargement expansion in russian terminology. Natos open door policy is based on article 10 of the alliances. Since the end of the cold war, natos expansion has been a central. The kremlin claims it had western assurances that would not happen.73 344 603 826 696 526 443 1524 347 237 701 1396 313 435 492 87 78 796 127 1482 1454 1110 1290 838 1460 1454 323 331 324 848 253 596